Sage has an antispasmodic action which reduces tension in smooth muscle. Its astringent action is due to a relatively high tannin content and this can be of benefit in the treatment of infantile diarrhea. It may be taken as a carminative to reduce griping and other symptoms of indigestion. The thujone in the volatile oil has an antiseptic and antibiotic action and, when taken as a mouthwash, sage deals effectively with throat infections, abscesses, infected gums and mouth ulcers. Sage is an excellent remedy for helping to remove mucous congestion in the airways and for checking or preventing secondary infection. Sage has a strong ahtihydrotic action. Its appreciable oestogenic effect makes it particularly beneficial for menopausal night sweats, and also for some cases of painful periods, menstrual irregularity or absent periods. It is effective in reducing milk production, and can be used during the process of weaning an infant off the breast.